Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Historically, melanoma was a rare cancer, but in the last 50 years its incidence has risen faster than almost any other cancer  making it the 19th most commonly occurring cancer worldwide, with over 320,000 new cases and over 55,000 deaths, in 2020.  After Australia and New Zealand, European countries have highest rates of melanoma incidence. According to GLOBOCAN, in Europe there are approximately 144.000 cases diagnosed per year and 27.000 deaths related .
Starting from pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) in the skin, melanoma spreads to other parts of the body through metastasis. Patients with stage III melanoma usually undergo surgery to remove the primary tumour and the nearby metastasised lymph nodes (i.e., to which mobile tumour cells have migrated). However, successful surgery does not guarantee that patients will be cancer-free, and stage III melanoma patients bear a high risk that their cancer returns.